Hydronautics CPA (Composite Polyamide) elements set the standard for RO membrane elements – over 600 million gallons per day of pure water are produced by CPA elements for global municipalities and industries. 4” and 8” configurations available.
Hydronautics ESPA® (Energy Saving Polyamide) elements achieve high flux/lower pressure without compromising standards for high rejection. Since its introduction in the late 1990s, the ESPA® membrane has gained wide acceptance in the water treatment industry due to the significant operational cost savings associated with their use. 4” and 8” configurations available.
Hydronautics LFC® (Low Fouling Composite) elements combine neutral surface charge and hydrophilicity, providing significant reduction in fouling rates and increasing membrane efficiency by restoring nominal performance after cleaning.
Hydronautics SWC® seawater desalination elements offer the highest levels of salt rejection and a consistently pure end product. Membrane formulations are designed to accommodate varying levels of seawater salinities worldwide with reliable field-proven performance. 4” and 8” configurations available.
|Membrane Type||Model Number||Minimum Salt
|Permeate Flow (gpd)|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA1||99.0||99.3||12,000|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA2||99.5||99.6||9,000|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA2+*||99.5||99.6||12,000|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA3||98.0||98.5||14,000|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA4**||99.0||99.2||12,000|
|Ultra Low Pressure Brackish||ESPA-B||99.0||99.2||8,600|
|High Rejection Brackish||CPA2||99.5||99.7||10,000|
|High Rejection Brackish||CPA3||99.6||99.7||11,000|
|High Rejection Brackish||CPA4||99.5||99.7||6,000|
|Low Fouling Brackish||LFC1||99.2||99.5||11,000|
|Low Fouling Brackish||LFC3||99.5||99.7||9,500|
|Low Fouling Brackish||LFC3-LD||99.5||99.7||11,000|
|Standard Sea Water||SW3||99.5||99.7||5,900|
|Standard Sea Water||SW3+||99.7||99.8||7,000|
|Standard Sea Water||SWC4+||99.7||99.8||6,500|
|Standard Sea Water||SWC5||99.7||99.8||9,000|
*Boron Rej. @ pH = 10 is 93% for ESPA2+ and 96% for ESPA-B
**ESPA4 NaCl Solution tested at 500 PPM; tested at 100 psig